一花一葉一世界

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談到世界瞭解,人們或許有不少疑惑,宇宙萬物究竟依何而住?浩然星際,有沒有一定規律、或者有沒有一個主宰?人,生從何來、死歸何處?生命有什麼意義、又有什麼價值?千古以來,不少哲人學者,都不斷尋思探索:

唯物學派肯定宇宙最基本的元素是物質,人也是物質,人如果沒有心臟或大腦,也就沒有思想,人的思想活動必定依存於物質性的身體。當人死後,肉體死亡,精神也隨之消滅,宇宙間一切活動,都是物質性的活動。人的內心世界是物質所產生,精神為物質的附屬。

唯心學者認為精神為宇宙的根本,宇宙間任何事物都是從精神而來。人以觀念表現出來;物則以力表現出來。人類之所以了解宇宙人生,都是持著實在的觀 念。所以有物質就有精神,精神是物質得以存在的原因,物質因精神而各具有條理性,因此宇宙間一切現象,各有其精神而各有條理,相互間得以協調,毫無混淆。

心物二元論主張心與物在宇宙內各有其不相涉的特性,所以心與物根本不能合併或附屬,其本身就是實體。

一元論認同宇宙原本是「一個生命共同體」,曾經歷「宇宙大爆炸」,要了解宇宙成因,必須推算宇宙在爆炸前的原點,而這個宇宙原點,裡面蘊藏了一切宇宙信息、時空、星系、生命。

多元論則肯定宇宙構成要素不止一個,而是多個。因為宇宙間呈現出種種不同的現象,這些不同的現象來源也有所不同,並非同為某一根源所演變。

持以上的論點,當然不能足以解除人們的疑問,如果宇宙本體是唯物,則生命的創造、精神的作用、能力的轉變,就難以用物質來解釋。如果是唯心,物的存 在卻是事實,精神不能創造物質。二元論主張心物各不相涉,但精神不能離開肉體而獨立活動。多元論認為宇宙是多要素,與一元論的宇宙統一互相矛盾。

佛教的『緣起論』,「緣」,是事物存在、變化和發展的條件,「起」,是有了這些條件而生成、變化、發展、滅亡。宇宙間的萬事萬物,包括眾生、山河大 地。都依賴著一定的條件而存在,條件具備,事物生起而存在,即「待緣而生」;條件消失,事物崩壞、滅亡,即「緣散而滅」,而一切物質現象和主觀思想,都是 時刻運動流轉,在複雜的變遷過程中,每一事物的生滅代謝,與周圍事物互相聯繫、互相影響,繼而產生因果相續的關係。所以世界有「成、住、壞、空」,動物有 「生、老、病、死」,思想有「生、住、異、滅」。

阿含經中「識緣名色,名色緣識」,「識」與「名色」就是因緣生滅的根本,即「主觀概念」與「客觀對象」,相互交織構成整個宇宙人生。不同的生存意識 形態,有著不同的主觀概念「識」,與客觀對象「名色」,所生起的現象亦各有差別,在世間,無數生物存在,生物間各自的生存意識形態,亦各自的主觀世界,人有自己的世界,動物有動物自己的世界,其他生物亦各有自身的世界。

動物看天下,森林之大足已令牠樂不思蜀,螞蟻的宇宙,走不出一間小房子,人有不斷求進的欲念,思維不斷更新,宇宙亦不斷擴展。要破解宇宙之迷?正比喻要螞蟻走出屋外去瞭望天際。意識形態不同,信息無法互通,誰也不能道個明明白白,要覺悟宇宙人生,仍須佛法才能證入!宇宙無始無終,無量無邊,人們所居的地球,祗是宇宙中的微塵沙礫,遙望長空,祗感到人的渺小。

佛家有云: 所言覺者,謂心體離念,離念相者,等虛空界,無所不遍。

29/07/2010

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